World Intellectual Property Organisation (WIPO)

Headquartered at Geneva, Switzerland, World Intellectual Property Organisation, is a global forum for Intellectual Property (IP) service, policy, and information[1]. It is a self-funding agency of the United Nations with 193 members currently.

WIPO is a force for progressive change, helping the world take into account public interest and developmental needs. One of their main missions is to head the development of a balanced and effective international IP system to enable innovation and creativity for the benefit of all. The objectives of the organisation are to[2] :

  1. Promote the protection of the IP throughout the world through cooperation among states
  2. Ensure administrative cooperation among the unions

Moving Healthcare to the Cloud, United States of America 
– Tiatros Inc.

Tiatros Inc. is a digital behavioural company with its headquarters in San Francisco Bay Area, California, USA. The company offers a portfolio of behavioural health and resilience programs to anyone with a treatable mental illness. These programs are personally formulated for the participant to engage in at the comfort of their homes, on their own devices, and when it works best for them. They deploy artificial intelligence and advanced analytical tools to create a user experience for all participants.

In this present study, ‘Moving Healthcare to the Cloud’, Tiatros Inc. focusses on making general health data accessible, meaningful, and actionable with the intent of improving the mental health outcome for patients.[3]

The outbreak of pandemics like COVID – 19 have made it clear that healthcare is a neglected subject. It is often seen that one chooses daily sustenance and water over their wellbeing.

The company endeavours to solve problems through innovating products and services that allow different physicians with different medical partners and in different parts of the world to access the same data and information for a single patient, clinical trial, medical project, all stored securely in an online health cloud.[4]

History of Cloud Computing in Healthcare

Information Technology impacts every aspect of one’s daily lives. However, its impact on the healthcare industry seems slower in many areas. It is often observed that doctors, researchers, and patients are very disconnected from each other since the traditional approach of saving data still prevails.

In 1997, the first known definition of the term ‘cloud computing’ was coined by Professor Ramnath Chellappa in Dallas, Texas.[5] But the long march to the digitalisation of clinical information started in 1971 in the El Camino Hospital in Mountain View, California. The hospital was a pioneer in electronic clinical communications, starting with its launch of the nation’s first computerized physician order system in 1971. [6]

Tiatros collaborated with academicians, IT, privacy, and security experts at primary academic medical centres in the United States of America. It gradually set up an internet-based means of healthcare providers, doctors, and researchers to merge their workforces and easily communicate and collaborate.

Opportunity for Healthcare

Cloud Computing is changing the way healthcare providers – doctors, clinics, and hospitals – deliver low cost and quality services to their patients.

Thus, providers have no choice but to embrace the cloud in some form. This transition is driven by two forces – first, the business imperative to cut costs and second, to improve the quality of care.

The healthcare industry is pursuing to move to the cloud because it benefits all the parties involved.

For Patients:

  • Easier access to their own records
  • Less friction, especially with insurance
  • More personalised care

For Doctors:

  • Improved quality of caregiving
  • Continual backup of information

For Insurers:

  • Streamlined Transactions
  • Higher Coverage

The Healthcare Insurance Portability and Accountability Act, 1996 is a living document. It is a federal law that requires the creation of national standards to protect sensitive patient health information from being disclosed without the patient’s consent or knowledge.[7] However, the present cloud computing and internet-related laws are ever-evolving and have no set common ground across borders.

Intellectual Property Right Invoked

Tiatros relied on Copyright (Author’s) Rights which are a ‘bundle of rights’. This is used to describe the rights that creators have over their literary and artistic works. There is no exhaustive list of all the works covered under the Copyright in any legislation. However, copyright protection extends to only expressions and not ideas.

WIPO Copyright Treaty (WCT) is a special agreement under the Berne Convention. It deals with the works and rights of the authors in a digital environment.

This treaty grants “The Right to Communication to Public” authorizing any communication to the public. This can be done by wire or wireless means, including “the making available to the public of works in a way that the members of the public may access the work from a place and at a time individually chosen by them.” This implies an on-demand, interactive communication through the Internet.

Tiatros Inc. is working towards innovating products and services to gain access to common data. The company seeks to create a Patient Care Relationship Management System that can support relationships among all the stakeholders who are actively involved in a patient’s case. Hence, to optimise the use of its technologies and products, Tiatros Inc. filed a number of applications with the United States Patent Office.

Cloud might be the watchword for the healthcare industry but has not been able to move at a pace it was expected to. Healthcare practitioners are reluctant to embrace the change as they feel that offline data is far more secure and private. Even though there are roadblocks to this process, the world needs a healthcare reboot. In today’s trying times a holistic approach and not just quick fixes should be the protocol one should follow when dealing with healthcare.


[1] Inside Wipo, available at: https://www.wipo.int/about-wipo/en/

[2] Article 3 Convention Establishing the World Intellectual Property Organization

[3] Tiatros Joins American Heart Association’s Center for Health Technology & Innovation Innovators Network With a Focus on Behavioral Health, Wellness and Resilience, available at: https://www.businesswire.com/news/home/20190710005533/en/Tiatros-Joins-American-Heart-Association%E2%80%99s-Center-Health

[4] Tiatros Inc, “Moving Healthcare to the Cloud” available at : https://www.wipo.int/ipadvantage/en/articles/article_0211.html

[5] Rasendu Mishra, Rushabh Shah, Devendra Vashi, Ajay Kumar Patel, Nisarg Dave, and Harsh Mistry, “Cloud Computing : A Review” 6 IJARET 37 (2015)

[6]HealthPerks newsletter, November 2015 ed.

[7] Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, “Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 (HIPAA)”

Divya Gupta from Amity Law School, Delhi

You can find her here

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